Volume 2, No 2 / Volume 3, No 1.

Volume 3, No 1.

Copyright @2010 Australian and New Zealand Journal of European Studies

Vol.3(1) / Vol. 2 (2) ISSN 1837-2147 (Print) ISSN 1836-1803 (On-line)




Julius Georg Luy (German Ambassador to Myanmar.) "Two plus Four: Revisiting a diplomatic masterpiece that paved the way for German Reunification.” Introduction by John Leslie (Victoria University, Wellington.) (Pg 2.)


Dramatic events in Central Europe in Autumn 1989—particularly demonstrations on the streets of Leipzig and East Berlin—often overshadow the accounts of the highstakes diplomacy that ended the Cold War division of Germany and Europe. This account by a member of the West German team that negotiated the ‘Two-plus-Four’ Treaty between the two Germanies, France, the UK, Soviet Union and United States puts the spotlight on the monumental issues resolved in a frenetic period of diplomacy between February and July 1990. The treaty leading to German unification managed issues central to modern Europe’s bloodiest conflicts—state sovereignty and national self-determination—by preserving and extending Western Europe’s multilateral institutions. Negotiators trod a narrow path between sceptics in East and West, unifying Germany without undermining Europe’s multilateral political and security order founded on NATO and the European Community. Rather than raising the German Question anew, the ‘Two-plus-Four’ Treaty unified Germany by extending eastward the Federal Republic’s postwar commitments to the West. Ambassador Luy provides a first-hand account of how this fortuitous chain of events unfolded.


Robert F. Miller (Australia National University, Canberra.) "Goal Rationality in the Formulation and Conduct of Soviet and Russian Foreign Policy.”  (Pg 10.)


T.H. Rigby’s concept of goal rationality, building on Max Weber’s ideas of substantive and formallegal rationality in the functioning of bureaucracies, provided important insights into the relevance of ideology for understanding how the Soviet system worked at both the domestic and foreign policy levels. This ideological dimension has tended to be neglected in much of the Western literature on Soviet communism.  Since the end of the Soviet system, Russian leaders have tended to avoid ideology as a negative example to be avoided.  Nevertheless, in their search for doctrines and principles to guide foreign and domestic aspects of the pursuit of national interests, these leaders have willy-nilly fallen back on ideological ways of thinking, which Rigby’s goal rationality helps to elucidate.

Key Words: goal rationality,  ideology,  Stalinism,  Neo-Eurasianism,  sovereign democracy, PutinMedvedev tandemocracy.


Melissa Fini (Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology, Christchurch.) "The EU as  Force to “Do Good”: The EU’s Wider Influence on Environmental Matters." (Pg 26.)


This research paper examines the capacity of the EU to exercise its influence in relation to environmental matters beyond its Member States. More specifically, this paper identifies that EU law and policy has the potential to influence environmental laws and business practices in New Zealand. Two hypotheses are put forward: first, that the EU can use its market force in such a way as to influence laws in third countries such as New Zealand - that is, relatively small countries seeking economies of scale and for whom the EU represents a valuable market. It is suggested that such influence can be observed in New Zealand through a spill-over effect in product standards for those goods exported to the EU and sold within New Zealand. Secondly, it is argued that the EU overcomes legal jurisdictional limits by relentlessly pursuing the adoption of its environmental policies and practices outside the EU through international consensus.

Keywords: business, environmental, EU, influence, international law.


Pablo C Jimenez Lobeira (Australia National University, Canberra.) "Liberal Democracy: Culture Free? The Habermas-Ratzinger Debate and its Implications for Europe.” (pg 44.)


The increasing number of residents and citizens with non-Western cultural backgrounds in the European Union (EU) has prompted the question of whether EU Member States (and other Western democracies) can accommodate the newcomers and maintain their free polities (‘liberal democracies’). The answer depends on how important – if at all – cultural groundings are to democratic polities. The analysis of a fascinating Habermas-Ratzinger debate on the ‘pre-political moral foundations of the freestate’ suggests that while legitimacy originates on the will of the citizens that conform the political community, liberal democracies might not be completely free from moral principles implicit in their political culture. This possibility has normative implications for the political future of the EU—and of the West in general—particularly regarding immigration, integration and citizenship policies.

Keywords: Europe, Judeo-Christianity, moral pre-political foundations, cultural background, political culture, Enlightenment, Western liberal democracies.


Naila Maier Knapp (University of Canterbury, Christchurch.) "The Case of the European Union Partnership and Cooperation Agreement Negotiations with Thailand.” (Pg 58.)


This article examines the European Union’s (EU) current negotiations of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with Thailand. It asks why the EU has entered into the negotiation process with this remote developing economy and provides theoretical explanations for the EU’s motivations. It will give an overview of the process and discuss the issues that have emerged in the course of the negotiations and are currently pending. The article will assess the pre-negotiation phase and the obstacles during the negotiation phase that have delayed the conclusion of the process. The findings will allude to historical institutionalism and a self-devised content-context approach synthesised with William I. Zartman’s insights on negotiation theory. The article argues that despite the importance of the economic dimension of the negotiations and the general prevalence of international political economy in explaining the EU’s relations with Asia, this case reveals a complexity of variables that contest a purely economic lens and allow a theoretically eclectic and reflectivist understanding of the impediments, stimuli and of the process itself.

Keywords: EU, Thailand, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, negotiation theory, socialisation, historical institutionalism.


CESAA Essay Prize Winners


Book Reviews


Notes on Contributors